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Raw material

High-quality pellets can be produced from a wide variety of biogenic feedstocks.

Plants and fruits

Hay

Hay pellets are excellent as feed in animal farming.

Example:

Many horses react allergically to hay feeding by coughing, respiratory problems up to asthma and headshaking. Until now, watering the hay, switching to haylage, hay cobs or dry grass were the only ways to provide affected horses with basic feed. By pelleting the hay, the animals can thus consume the feed without the hay dust development! Another advantage: By pelleting the hay can be stored for a long time and reduces the required storage space by a multiple!

Hay pellets can be purchased on the open market for about 4 euros/kg. This results in a calculative price per ton of 4,000 euros! Become a producer yourself!

Application of the pellets:

Animal feed
All pelleting machine models are characterized by their excellent manufacturing and durable powerful output. In addition, we completely dispense with binders in the production of pellets and stand out strongly from the market!

Hops

Hops and malt, may God bless them...

Following the motto, more and more raw hops (without stems) are pressed in pellet form, whereby the alpha acid content remains constant, with a significantly increased shelf life. In addition, the raw hops remain protected from vermin as well as from contamination and dusting, and transport, storage and, above all, dosage are generally made much easier.
Due to the increasing number of hobby breweries and microbreweries, a kilogram of hop pellets is currently traded for around 40 Euros.

Application of the pellets:

Raw material
Hop cones are an extremely sensitive raw material and therefore it is very important not to heat the raw material above 60 degrees Celsius.

The LP22 pellet mill optionally controls the pressing room with a temperature sensor, so it is not possible to exceed 60 degrees Celsius, because the LP22 immediately stops the production, so that no ingredients and flavors are lost. 

Without the addition of binders, this creates an excellent natural product for the production of beer.

 

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Hemp

Hemp is one of the oldest useful plants in the world. Especially because all parts of the plant can be beneficially processed in many ways. For example, since early history and antiquity, ropes and cloth have been made from the fibers of the stalks, edible oils from the seeds, and essential oils from the distilled leaves and flowers.

The mostly annual plant can reach a height of growth of up to 5 meters and grows densely and erect. In the mid-20th century, the plant was displaced by synthetics. Only since the 1990s has hemp regained popularity in agricultural cultivation.

Hemp seeds contain a lot of protein, carbohydrates, fats and a high percentage of fiber and various vitamins and minerals. Hemp nuts and hemp oil contain more than 90% polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega 3 fatty acids.

Thanks to its unbeatable, biological properties, many hemp products found their way back into the trade. Currently, 52 varieties of commercial hemp are allowed for cultivation in the EU.

Hemp has many, incredible advantages:
- Extremely durable
- Does not mold, even when damp or wet
- Can be recycled several times

Hemp pellets are ideal as bedding (does not mold) and as a source of energy.

1kg of hemp pellets has a calorific value of about 4.5 kWh. Thus, 2 kg of hemp pellets could replace almost a liter of fuel oil and this clean, sustainable and climate neutral.

Husks

Husks make a perfect bedding...

The irritating and fluffy remains when the grain is hulled is often wrongly declared as waste material and accordingly simply disposed of. Especially among horse owners, the demand for pellet bedding is increasing enormously. For the ton of bedding pellets is paid in organic quality sometimes up to 400 euros - so in any case not throw away

Einsatzgebiet der Pellets:

  • Bedding

All pelleting machine models are characterized by their excellent workmanship and durable powerful output. In addition, we completely dispense with binders in the production of pellets and thus stand out strongly from the market!

Plant scraps

Plant scraps into fertilizer pellets

In Germany alone, it is estimated that there are around 1,200 hectares of greenhouse cultivation area for vegetables, fruit and flowers under glass or plastic covers. In many cases, large quantities of biogenic plant waste remain after harvesting. These take up an enormous area and are usually disposed of in biogas plants for a fee

In a pilot trial, tomato plant scraps have now been dried and pelletized into fertilizer pellets. In the process, the volume was reduced by an incredible 18 : 1. The dried plant scraps pellets are easy to transport and dose, and can be stored in a space-saving manner until they are used as fertilizer. Thus, greenhouse operators can produce their own fertilizer, use it themselves or even sell it. A project for sustainability and with high future potential. 

Main advantages for converting to fertilizer pellets:

 -Saving storage space through, an extreme volume reduction of approx. 18 : 1

 -Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer trucks pick up the material and take it for disposal

 -Saving fertilizer costs through self-sufficiency

 -Additional revenue opportunity, through the sale of fertilizer pellets

 -Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of fertilizer pellets can be done on the site

 -Increasing sustainability, by utilizing operational resources and avoiding waste (green waste becomes recyclable again)

 

Digestion substrates

Fermentation substrates are generally the fermentation contents (liquid manure, solid manure and energy crops such as corn, grain and grass silage or agricultural by-products and biowaste) found in biogas plants after fermentation. This biomass residue is ideal as a fertiliser, as almost all trace elements, almost all nitrogen, phosphorus and, depending on the process, all sulphur remain in the fermentation substrate. Due to the fermentation process, the fertiliser is far less chemically aggressive towards the plants than raw manure. In addition, the nitrogen availability for the plants is more optimal and the odour is far less intense. The fermentation residue makes up approx. 50 % of the initial mass used.

Since the fermentation substrates, like normal slurry, may not be spread on agricultural land during the winter months, biogas plant operators must maintain a high storage capacity. Pelleting could drastically reduce this required storage area. In addition, the resulting fermentation substrates can be optimally transported and dosed for spreading ing. The nutrients and minerals of the manure are slowly released back to the agricultural land through the compacted pellets. In some cases, combustion of the fermentation substrates also takes place for further quantity reduction or for energy generation.

Fields of application of the pellets:

  • Fertilizer
  • Energy production

During pelleting by our Ecokraft pelleting machine model range, the processing generates a temperature of nearly 80 degrees Celsius, which brings the biomass into the desired shape and makes it durable for a long time.

All pelleting machine models are distinguished by their excellent manufacturing and long-lasting, high-performance output. In addition, we completely dispense with binding agents in the production of pellets and thus distinguish ourselves strongly from the market!

Mushrooms

Fertiliser pellets from mushroom compost

When mushrooms or other fungi are cultivated, a rich residual compost is produced after harvesting, which can be dried and pressed into pellets as universal fertiliser.

Asparagus husks

Asparagus peel scraps into fertiliser pellets

Asparagus is the Germans' favourite vegetable and is eagerly awaited in February. The first European asparagus deliveries in February and March usually come from Spain and Greece. Asparagus grown in Germany is then available from April to June. Asparagus is the vegetable with the largest cultivation area of about 23,000 hectares in Germany, the per capita consumption is about 1.7 kg. According to the Federal Statistical Office, around 130,600 tonnes of asparagus were harvested in Germany in 2019. However, harvesting and processing also produces very large quantities of asparagus residues, which have generally only been disposed of up to now.

In a pilot trial, asparagus peel scraps have now been dried and pelletised into fertiliser pellets. The volume could be reduced by a factor of 8 : 1. The dried fertiliser pellets are easy to transport and dose and can be stored in a space-saving way until they are needed. Thus, asparagus farmers can produce their own fertiliser, use it themselves or even sell it. A project for sustainability and with high future potential.

Main advantages for the conversion to fertiliser pellets:

 -Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 8 : 1
 -Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer lorries collect the material and take it for disposal
 -Saving fertiliser costs, through to self-sufficiency
 -Additional income opportunity, through the sale of the fertiliser pellets
 -Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of fertiliser pellets can be done on site
 -Increasing sustainability, through use of operational resources and avoidance of waste (green waste is turned back into   fertiliser value-added material)

Sunflower husks

Sunflower husks to heating pellets

According to proplanta, sunflower cultivation is the second most important oil crop after rapeseed (6.5 million tonnes), with about 4.2 million hectares in Europe. In Germany, the oil of the sunflower is particularly sought after because it is rich in vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids.

After pressing, the oil cakes are usually processed into high-quality animal feed, but the sunflower husks are often disposed of unused in gigantic quantities.

Yet this biogenic residual material still offers so much potential. The shells can be pelletised immediately and uncrushed with a residual moisture of between 10 and 15 %. The extremely stable pellets are ideal for combustion, as the calorific value is an incredible 5.15 kW/kg, which is 5 % more heating power than premium wood pellets (4.9 kW/kg). This material is really much too good to dispose of.

Main advantages for the conversion to energy pellets:

 -Saving storage space, through volume recution of approx. 4 : 1. 

 -Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer trucks collect the material and take it to the landfill/incineration site

 -Saving heating costs, through self-sufficiency

 -Additional revenue opportunity, through the sale of the pellets

 -Increasing independency, the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site

 -Increasing sustainability, by using operational resources and avoiding waste ( husk waste is turned back into recyclable material)



Herbs

Herb scraps to feed pellets

Large quantities of residual material, e.g. stems, flowers, etc., often accumulate during the production of herbs. These can usually be transformed into excellent feed pellets. The smell and taste is an experience for humans and animals.

Savory & Marjoram

The more unusual the ideas, the more surprising the results.

Stalks of savory and marjoram, for example, can be excellently pelletised and used as high-quality fuel and thus for energy production.

One kg of the conventional "waste product" contains approx. 5 KW of energy, which corresponds to half a litre of heating oil!

Fields of application of the pellets:

  • Combustible
  • Energy production

During pelleting by our Ecokraft pelleting machine model range, almost 100 degrees Celsius are generated during processing, which brings the biomass into the desired shape and makes it durable for a long time.

All pelleting machine models are distinguished by their excellent workmanship and durable, high-performance output. In addition, we completely dispense with binding agents in the production of pellets and thus distinguish ourselves strongly from the market!

Spice scraps

Animal feed from spice scraps, a dream of wonderful aroma from parsley and chives. The residues from the production of spices are transformed into high-quality animal feed pellets. Incredibly favoured by rabbits and guinea 
pigs.

Corn as fish feed

Fish feed made from corn, simple corn becomes a premium product for anglers. From 0.25 euros/kg for the pure corn, the transformation, packaging and labelling turn it into a bestseller for 3 euros/kg. The production quantity per hour here is about 500 kg/hour.

 

Appel scraps

Appel scraps, the production of juices or apple products (apple rings) produces very large quantities of apple biomass. By drying to below 20 % residual moisture and forming into pellets, these energy- and vitamin-rich raw materials can be preserved for years. In pellet form, this high-quality raw material is used as a treat for horses and other small animals. This can generate additional income of up to 3 euros per kg.

 

 

Cherry pits and sea buckthorn scraps

Cherry pit and sea buckthorn scraps into energy pellets

The production of juices and liquor generates large quantities of biogenic residues. These are often given to biogas companies at low cost or disposed of by waste disposal companies at a charge.

IIn a pilot test, cherry pits and sea buckthorn scraps were dried and converted into energy pellets for a spirits producer. In the process, the volume was reduced to a third. The dried plant residue pellets are easy to transport and dose and can be stored in a space-saving way until they are used as energy pellets. With a calorific value of approx. 4.6 KW/kg, the biogenic residual masses can be used very well for energy production.

Main advantages for the transformation to energy pellets:

  • Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 3:1
  • Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer trucks pick up the material and take it for disposal
  • Saving energy costs, through self-sufficiency
  • Additional revenue opportunity, through selling the energy pellets
  • Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of energy pellets can take place on site
  • Increasing sustainability, by using operational resources and avoiding waste (waste becomes recyclable again).

Info in the production of liquor

The quality of the fruit essentially determines the quality of the schnapps. Spoilt, overripe or unripe fruit, berries or grapes are not suitable for the production of high-quality alcohol. Leaves, stems, grasses and seeds should also not be used for the mash.

 

Coffee husk scraps

Coffee husk scraps into energy pellets

Brazil is the largest coffee producer and exporter on earth, with about 300,000 coffee farms. Coffee does not grow everywhere, as these little plants have high requirements.

A balanced climate with low temperature fluctuations, plenty of rainfall and nutrient-rich soil, as well as plenty of protection from the sun, are necessary to even be considered as a location for a coffee plantation. In addition, it requires a lot of care and attention so that top varieties can be cultivated.

During the harvest and production of the valuable beans, a lot of pod husks, stems and leaves accumulate. Most of the material is simply disposed of unused by the coffee farmers. Yet there is still a lot of energy in the biogenic residues.

approx. 4.5 kW/kg in test pelletisations, which is only approx. 10 % less energy than from Premium DIN pellets made from 100 % spruce.

The coffee husk pellets could be used as fuel for the heating system or for the daily hot meal, and that 100% CO-neutral and available in gigantic quantities.

Main advantages for the conversion to energy pellets:

  • Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 15:1
  • Savingtransport and disposal costs for disposal by third parties
  • Saving heating costs, through self-sufficiency
  • Additional revenue opportunity, through the sale of the pellets
  • Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site
  • Increasing sustainability, by using operational resources and avoiding waste ( scrap material becomes recyclable material again).

 

Rose hips

Rose hips (powder) into tea pellets

Rose hips have been known for hundreds of years for their many beneficial properties. They are the collective fruit of the wild rose and are also known as the "lemon of the north" because of their very high vitamin C content of over 1,250 milligrams per 100 grams. Rosehip also contains vitamins D, P, K, B1, B2, B3 and provitamin A as well as the important minerals calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, sodium, iron, selenium and manganese. This concentrated load of vitamins and minerals makes rosehip the regional secret weapon among the popular superfoods.

The rosehip is not only a true vitamin bomb, it also has an anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effect, supports digestion, binds toxins, strengthens the skin and eyesight, protects the vessels and can alleviate bladder problems.

When it gets cold, rose hips are also an important food source for local birds.

They are picked from the end of August until late November, then washed and dried to preserve them for making tea.

When crushing the dried rosehip fruits, very thin, sometimes even pulverised residual material is produced, which is not suitable for filling into tea bags due to its volume.

By pelletising this rosehip powder into tea pellets and then crushing it in a pellet crushing machine, all the excess residual rosehip material can be reused.

 

Main advantages for the conversion to tea pellets:

  • Increasing sustainability, by using the complete residual material and avoiding waste
  • Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 5:1
  • Weight optimisation for filling in tea bags

Nettle

Nettle (powder) into tea pellets

The stinging nettle, a real nutrient bomb and bacterial brake. The nettle genus comprises about 45 different species and is used worldwide in many ways. It is a very useful plant and is therefore used in cooking, natural medicine and in the garden. As a nettle liquid manure, it can even replace artificial fertilisers and pesticides. The nettle is also excellent as food - not only because of its abundance of vital substances, but also because of its excellent taste.

Nettle contains more vitamin C than citrus fruits and is also rich in minerals such as iron, potassium, magnesium and secondary plant substances such as flavonoids. It is therefore also known as a medicinal plant for a variety of uses.

This includes, for example:

  • Preventing urinary tract and prostate diseases
  • Improving the immune system
  • Detoxicating & Purifying
  • Digestive
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Diuretic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Promotes circulation
  • Analgesic

Due to its many positive properties, nettle is also a very popular infusion drink and is therefore often drunk as nettle tea. Nettle tea has a diuretic effect because the flavonoids have a mild diuretic effect. This helps against urinary tract infections and can stop a developing bladder infection.

To make nettle tea, the young shoots are cut off at the base and the tiny thorns are removed. The leaves are then dried and crushed.
The crushing of the dried nettles produces very fine, sometimes even pulverised residual material, which is not suitable as loose material or for filling into tea bags due to its consistency and volume.
By pelletising this nettle powder into tea pellets and subsequently crushing it in a pellet crushing machine, the entire surplus residual material of the nettle can be used.

 

Main advantages for the conversion into tea pellets:

  • Increasing sustainability, through use of the complete residual material and avoidance of waste
  • Saving storage space and transport costs, through extreme volume reduction of approx. 6:1
  • Weight optimisation for filling into tea bags

 

Lime-Mint

Lime mint into tea pellets

Lime mint belongs to the genus of spice mint similar to orange mint and has a light lime/lemon scent. Round-leaved lime mint has many beneficial properties as a medicinal plant. In the form of tea, it is effective against nausea, loss of appetite and upset stomach. Due to its sweet aroma, lime mint is also excellent for desserts, desserts and fruity shakes but also for refreshing drinks and tea.

 

The ideal time to harvest the mint leaves to get a particularly intense flavor is early summer in warm weather and sunshine, as the mint then produces a particularly large amount of essential oils. For subsequent preservation and conservation of the refreshing flavors, drying has proven to be the best method.

After drying, the leaves are crushed, resulting in very fine residual material which, due to its consistency and volume, is not suitable for filling, for example in tea bags.

By pelletizing this lime mint material into tea pellets and then crushing it in a pellet crushing machine, all the excess residual lime mint material can be reused.

 

Main advantages for the transformation into tea pellets:

  • Increasing sustainability, through the use of the complete residual material and avoidance of waste
  • Saving storage space and transport costs, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 9:1
  • Weight optimization for filling into tea bags

 

Green oats

Green oats into tea pellets

Green oats belong to the genus of grasses and are basically unripe oats, which are harvested shortly after flowering, before the starch is incorporated into the grain.

Green oats are very basic and contain numerous effective plant substances such as anti-inflammatory flavonoids, immune-stimulating saponins, as well as numerous minerals and trace elements that stimulate the metabolism. These ingredients also promote the excretion of uric acid and other metabolic products.

As a green oat tea, it is said to naturally help alleviate metabolic diseases such as gout and rheumatism, help with sleep disorders and fatigue, detoxify and drain, and balance the acid-base household.

For green oat tea, the grasses of the oat plant must be harvested already at their flowering time and then dried and crushed.

Bei der Zerkleinerung des getrockneten Grünhafers fällt sehr feines Restmaterial an, welches aufgrund seiner Konsistenz und Volumens als loses Material oder für eine Abfüllung in Teebeutel nicht geeignet ist.

By pelletizing this green oat material into tea pellets and then crushing it in a pellet crushing machine, all the excess residual green oat material can be reused.

 


Main advantages for the transformation into tea pellets
  • Increasing sustainability, by using the complete residual material and avoiding waste
  • Saving storage space and transport costs, through extreme volume reduction of approx. 8:1
  • Weight optimization for filling into tea bags

 

Alfalfa

Alfalfa into animal feed pellets

Alfalfa is a two to three year old blue flowering plant that belongs to the papilionaceous family and is a natural source of essential amino acids and minerals. It is not only a valuable source of nectar for bees and bumblebees in summer, but also an ideal animal feed. Already in ancient times, it was used in Persia as a fodder base for keeping horses. In fact, it is the oldest cultivated crop used in agriculture exclusively for fodder. Alfalfa is also called the "queen of forage plants" because of its valuable feed properties, such as high-quality protein, ß-carotene, many vitamins and minerals. Especially for breeding, sport and young horses alfalfa is an ideal concentrate, because it provides 50% more digestible energy than hay.

Alfalfa pellets can be fed not only to horses but also to calves, goats, sheep and rodents. For better sale and easier dosing, alfalfa can also be converted into premium organic feed pellets. Another advantage of conversion into pellets is the saving of storage space due to the extreme reduction in volume.

 

 

Miscanthus

Miscanthus into energy pellets

MMiscanthus, also called elephant grass, Chinese reed, Chinese grass or bamboo reed, is the ideal energy grass, because 1 hectare replaces about 3,000 - 7,000 liters of heating oil! These are very fast-growing, hardy, deciduous and horst-forming grasses. Miscanthus is a perennial land reed plant that reaches growth heights of up to 4m from the third year and can be grown on all soils suitable for corn. The useful life of miscanthus is over 20 years. In Germany, miscanthus is grown on approx. 4,500 ha for various material and energy uses.

Since miscanthus is a rapidly renewable raw material, it is used for ecological biomass production. If Miscanthus is converted into high-quality pellets, this naturally biogenic raw material can be used for heating, as animal bedding or even in horticulture as garden mulch. It is also an environmentally friendly alternative to plastic products in the automotive and construction industries.

Advantages of converting miscanthus to energy pellets:

  • Valuable, energy-rich, natural raw material becomes usable for machine firing
  • Easy resale in small and large pieces
  • Saving storage space, due to extreme volume reduction
  • Saving transport and disposal costs
  • Saving heating costs, due to self-sufficiency
  • Additional income opportunity, through the sale of the pellets
  • Increasing the independence, the production and supply of heating material can be done on site
  • Protection against vermin
  • Protection against mold
  • Easy dosage

 

Vine scraps

Vine scraps into energy & bedding pellets

In vino veritas - in wine lies the truth. Wine, whether red or white, has always been the epitome of pleasure. The grapevine is one of the oldest plants in the world and the first evidence of viticulture can be found in the Middle East as early as 8,000 BC. Wine is produced in almost every country, but almost half of the world's wine is produced by just three countries, Italy, France and Spain. They are the largest producing countries of wine on the European continent. In Germany today there are 13 wine-growing regions. The vineyards in Germany amount to just over 100,000 hectares. The largest wine-growing areas include the Rheinhessen region and the Palatinate, each with a cultivation area of over 20,000 hectares.

Manual harvesting involves cutting the ripe grapes by hand. Mechanical harvesting is done by a full harvester that passes over the planted vines. The grapes are harvested by tapping and shaking. The falling grapes are collected by a system of lamellas. This process also produces residual materials from the grapevine, such as branches and leaves, which are usually disposed of at a cost.

However, there is still a lot of valuable potential in this waste material. If these leftovers are converted into pellets, they can be excellently used as energy or bedding pellets.

Main advantages for conversion to energy and bedding pellets:

  • Saving in storage space, through an extreme volume reduction
  • Saving in collection and disposal costs
  • Saving costs for heating material & bedding, through self-sufficiency
  • Additional income opportunity, through the sale of the pellets
  • Increasing independency, as the production and the  supply of energy or bedding pellets can be done on site
  • Increasing sustainability, through use of operational resources and avoidance of waste

 

Corn break

Corn breakage into energy and feed pellets

During transport, storage or screening of the corn, fine corn breakage and dust are produced as residual material. However, this natural material should not simply be disposed of (at a cost), because it can be used in many other ways. If you pelletize the broken corn and convert it into feed pellets, you have an excellent feed for poultry, pigeons, rabbits, horses or fish. In addition, the residual material can also be made into ideal energy pellets, which can be used for home heating or sold. Maize kernel pellets are a sustainable, regionally available and cost-effective source of feed and energy, which is good for the climate and makes us all a bit more independent.

Additional benefits of converting corn stover to feed and energy pellets:

  • Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction of 3:1.
  • Saving transport and disposal costs for disposal by third parties
  • Saving costs for feed - Savings in heating costs, through self-supply
  • Additional income opportunity, through the sale of the pellets
  • Increasing independency, as energy pellets and feed pellets can be produced and used by the farmers themselves
  • Increasing sustainability, through resource-saving reuse and avoidance of waste

 

Food scraps

Old pastries

Old bread is bread left over at the end of a sales day in bakeries and retail stores and sorted out as food or whose best-before date has passed.

Today, the storage of bread no longer has the high value of past times. In past times, especially in the domestic bakery, bread was not baked daily, but at different intervals, which required a considerable effort of storage. Today, a wide range of fresh baked goods is available daily. The abundance of our industrial society has changed customer demands, it demands fresh products. In the end, the unsaleable old bread usually has to be disposed of at the expense of the manufacturer/baker.

By pelletizing waste bread, it is possible to reuse bakery products for various applications and avoid costly disposal for the manufacturer. In fact, pelleting biomass makes it possible to tap into new sales markets and contribute to sustainable environmental protection.

Areas of application of old bread pellets:

  • combustible
  • Animal husbandry feed
  • Energy generation

2 kg of waste bread produces approx. 10 kw/h of energy, which in turn corresponds to approx. 1 liter of heating oil! Due to this property, albrot is an excellent fuel and can reduce up to 50% of energy costs and up to 91% CO2 emissions at the manufacturer due to the energy recovery (see video)!

During the pelletizing process by our Ecokraft pelletizer model series, almost 100 degrees Celsius are generated during the processing, which brings the biomass into the desired shape and makes it durable for a long time.

4 pieces of buns correspond to approx. 1 piece of pellets, which means that the required storage space is reduced by approx. 75%!

All pelletizing models are characterized by their excellent workmanship and the durable powerful output. In addition, we completely dispense with binders in the production of pellets and thus stand out strongly in the market!

Animal materials

Sheep wool

Sheep wool as an organic slow release fertilizer

Many garden owners would like to manage their garden as close to nature as possible and therefore do without mineral fertilizers. In most cases, this is easily possible with the gardener's own compost. For higher nitrogen requirements, horn meal or shavings can be used. But not everyone has enough compost available. As an alternative, the trade offers various organic compound fertilizers based on malt germs and vinasse (e.g. Maltaflor), cattle manure pellets (e.g. Oscorna) or bird droppings (e.g. COMPO Natur Dünger Guano). Less well known is that sheep wool is also a good fertilizer. This may be because wool is somewhat cumbersome to apply directly from the sheep farmer. But now there are also pelleted sheep wool, which is much easier to handle.

Properties of sheep wool as fertilizer:

Sheep wool pellets are made from unwashed sheep wool, and here preferably from the portions contaminated with manure, which are sorted out during shearing. This gives a complex fertilizer, which also slowly releases the nutrients. In addition to nitrogen, sheep's wool contains mainly potassium and some sulfur, and phosphate and magnesium are present in small amounts. Since phosphate is washed out only with difficulty, there is enough or even too much phosphate in most soils. Therefore, a complex fertilizer with low phosphate content is quite useful here.

Studies have shown that with almost all organic fertilizers, 75 percent of the plant-available nitrogen is released within the first 14 to 21 days, whereas with sheep's wool the release is delayed by up to ten days. Therefore, sheep wool can be used well as a slow-release fertilizer.

Eigenschaften im Überblick:

Ingredients
(manufacturer information)
floraPell*
Pellets
Rötberghof**
COMPO BIO Universal Langzeit-Dünger mit Schafwolle ****(50% Wolle)
Stickstoff N
10 - 12 %
10%
5%
Phosphat P2O5
0,15 - 0,17 %
0,3%
4%
Potassium  K2O
4 - 6 %
5%
6%
Sulphur S
1,8 - 2 %
1,8%
Magnesium MgO
0,05 %
0,3%
organic matter oTS
ca. 85 %
76,5%
Binder (lime)
3%
pH-value
ca. 8,8
10,3
Other features:

· Can store 3.5 times its own weight in water
- Shall have a deterrent effect against slugs (structure) and voles (odor)
- Soil conditioner

Fertilizer recommendation according to the manufacturer (depending on the nutrient requirements of the vegetable species partly strongly different):
*10 - 15g/plant,** 5 - 80g/plant (= 25.5 - 138g/m²), *** 100 - 170g/m².
Note: In the case of additional compost fertilization, the amount of fertilizer should be greatly reduced!

There are now also NPK fertilizers on the market (Compo), which consist of 50% sheep's wool pellets. The different mixture of the remaining 50% results in fertilizers with different nutrient contents, some of which differ significantly from pure sheep's wool pellets. These are marketed as universal, rose, conifer or tomato fertilizers "with sheep's wool". The water storage capacity is particularly emphasized as advantageous here.

Possible applications:

In principle, you can fertilize with sheep wool all plants that do not need acidic soils, so everything except blueberries, rhododendrons and other bog plants, because the pH is too high for them. It is also better to use a less alkaline fertilizer for soils with high pH (7 and above). Because of its high nitrogen content, sheep's wool is particularly suitable for heavy growers. It is ideal for plants with a cultivation period of 10 to 14 weeks, e.g. potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, sweet corn or cabbages, as the nutrients are only released gradually. But sheep's wool can also be used in perennial beds or for potted plants. However, indoor plants should not use this fertilizer, because its own odor can be disturbing in rooms.

Application:

In general, you can get unwashed sheep's wool directly from the source, that is, from a sheep farmer. Here you can often get dirty wool for free or for a small price. For this, the application is somewhat more cumbersome than with wool pellets, because the wool must be plucked apart into small flakes. It is then spread either all over the bed or directly around the plants. To prevent the wool flakes from blowing away or being carried off by birds to build their nests, a layer of soil is placed on top. If you plant tomatoes or potatoes, for example, you put the plucked-up wool directly into the planting hole or furrow. If you use wool pellets, you can also put them directly into the planting hole or scatter them on the bed, where they can be worked in by hoeing. In any case, whether using raw wool or pellets, must be well watered so that the "water reservoir wool" fills. The wool quilts up as soon as it comes into contact with water, continuously releasing its nutrients. Sheep wool pellets can also be used as mulch, however, since the wool is heavier in this compressed form and stays put. Beds mulched in this way are less attractive to most slugs.

Preise und Bezugsquellen für Schafwollpellets:

Sheep wool pellets or organic fertilizers with sheep wool content can be purchased in hardware stores, special nurseries, and also via Internet commerce. The prices are graded according to quantity. For example, 2.5kg of pure sheep's wool pellets cost about €18. Fertilizer with sheep's wool content, for example, is sold in 2kg packages for about 10€. When comparing prices, the possibly different nutrient content and the amount actually required per plant or per m² must be taken into account.

Some supply addresses (more on the Internet):
Düngepellet Produkt u. Vertriebs GmbH, Finsterwalder Str. 57, 01979 Lauchhammer, Tel.: 03574/767121,[

www.florapell.de

Rötberghof, Klaus Mebus, Hauptstrasse 36, 74423 Obersontheim, Phone 07973/910380 www.roetberghof.de
Schafwollspinnerei Höfer GmbH, Aiblingerstraße 1, 83075 Bad Feilnbach (Litzldorf), Tel.: 08066/362, www.schafwolle-hoefer.de

Source: https://www.dlr-rheinpfalz.rlp.de

 

 

Video "Sheep wool pellets as bio-fertilizer" by BR Fernsehen

Leather shavings

What are leather shavings and leather dusts and what can they be used for?

To produce leather in tanneries, more than 40 steps are necessary to go from an animal skin to a high-quality leather. After the preparation with washing, liming, scraping, decalcifying, pickling and pickling, it goes to the tanning, here happens the miracle of transformation from raw hide to durable leather. Essentially, there are 3 different processes of tanning:

  • vegetable substances (vegetable tanning) with e.g. oak bark, mimosa or fruits
  • mineral tanning, e.g. with chromium salts or aluminum salts
  • synthetic

After tanning, the leather is pressed and split (so that the leather has a uniform thickness, this is called the waste product: leather shavings, then dyed, greased and dried. Now the leather feels quite stiff and therefore it must be mechanically processed (mills and studs). Finally, the leather is dressed, finished with special ( fashionable ) effects and then protected against water and dirt.

The resulting Leferfalz chips and dust can be pressed into pellets almost wet with a residual moisture content of >35 %. They are then dried so that they can be packaged and stored until use.

An RP18 duo system can produce up to 1.2 tons of leather folding chips and dust per hour, with the volume being compressed by approx. 50%.

Leather pellets are very suitable as a large area fertilizer and for storing water in the soil or as an additional heating material for companies with special burning rights, such as concrete plants, brick plants, steel production, etc.

Why pelletize leather folding shavings?
The reduction in volume saves storage and transport costs, and also creates an attractive and innovative fertilizer product in terms of sustainability and cost-effectiveness, as well as providing a low-cost fuel.

Main advantages of pelletizing leather folding shavings:

  • Volume reduction of approx. 2:1 for storage
  • weight optimization for transport
  • very easy handling: internal transport, decanting, loading and metered dispensing

 

Leather dusts

During the treatment and processing of leather, large quantities of leather dust are produced. These can be very easily converted into fertilizer pellets by pelletizing. The naturally tanned leather often has a high nitrogen content of up to 14% and is rich in zinc, manganese and iron, among other things. Thus, this material is ideally suited as a flower fertilizer - 100% organic.

Horse manure

Horse manure into fertilizer pellets

Each horse produces approx. 20-40 kg of manure per day, which amounts to approx. 9 tons of horse manure per horse per year. At the moment, there are almost 1 million horses in Germany, which leave behind approx. 9 million tons of horse manure per year.

But where does all the horse manure go?

The Fertilizer Regulation 2020 tightens the conditions of horse owners. Horse keeping must ensure safe manure storage, which must be designed in such a way that no seeping juice can leak out. In addition, the horse keeper must store the horse manure for at least 2 months before it can be spread on the field.

The largest horse studs in Germany have about 150 horses, which means that 3.75 tons of horse manure are produced every day and have to be stored or disposed of in accordance with the fertilizer ordinance.

Horse manure is sold off the farm for about 0.06 euros per kg. However, the demand is very low, because customers prefer, dried, packaged and dosed fertilizers.

By converting horse manure into premium biofertilizer in pellet form, prices of 1-3 euros/kg can be achieved. The fertilizing effect of horse manure is excellent, especially rose growers swear by the power of horse manure.

Other advantages of horse manure pellets:

  • Shortening of costly manure storage
  • Space saving due to volume reduction of 4:1
  • Manure material is dry, solid and has a low odor
  • Additional income possibility, by selling the pellets => A horse stud with approx. 30 horses could produce approx. 200 to/year of fertilizer pellets; at 1 Euro per kg = 200.000 Euro revenue

 

Wood and energy crops

Wood chips

Heating with wood pellets from sustainable forestry is economical, energy-saving and climate-neutral.

The trend towards pellet heating systems is unbroken. Whether it is the replacement of the outdated oil heating or the new installation. Consequently, the demand for wood pellets is also rising continuously: in the last 10 years alone, sales of wood pellets have quadrupled.

Up to now, energy pellets have mostly been produced from 100% pure spruce heartwood (debarked). Increasingly, however, the demand for industrial pellets made from split products from wood and sawmills, i.e. screening material, sawdust, shavings, residual wood and also wood chips is growing steadily.

To produce one ton of wood pellets, about 6 to 8 cubic meters of chips or about 4 cubic meters of wood chips are required. The raw material may have a maximum moisture content of approx. 20 %. Container drying is a suitable method for drying wood residues. This simple and cost-effective process can dry a volume of about 27 cubic meters from about 60% to below 20% residual moisture in 8 to 12 hours. All wood materials smaller than 6 mm can be pelletized immediately; all other sizes must first be crushed by a cutting mill. Then, under high pressure, the material is pressed through a die by rotating rollers (pan grinder wheels). The heat generated causes the material's own resins and lignins to bind the pellet perfectly, so no additional binders (pressing aids, such as vegetable starch) are required for softwoods. Before cooling in special mosquito net big bags, the pellets produced can still be sieved to reduce the fines content. After 8 to 12 hours of cooling, the wood pellets are then completely hardened and can be packed or transported into silos.

The energy required to produce pellets from dry sawdust is only 2.7%. In comparison, the production of heating oil consumes 12% and liquid gas even 14% of the energy.

The calorific and heating value of these energy pellets is very good, only the ash content is usually slightly increased due to the bark content which is also processed. The wood residues used are greatly reduced in volume and dust due to the strong increase in bulk density. The risk of dust explosion is significantly reduced. Wood pellets can be easily and economically transported, stored and precisely metered in heating systems via screws and/or suction systems.

2 kg of wood pellets replace about 1 liter of fuel oil.

Wood pellets are a sustainable, regionally available and cost-effective energy source that is good for the climate and makes us all a bit more independent.

 

Sawdust

From a waste material to high-quality combustible!

Large quantities of sawdust are produced daily in the wood processing industry.
This is usually disposed of or sold very cheaply as bedding material for animal husbandry.

A brief example:

Sawdust is sold for approx. 11 to 15 Euro/m³ (weight approx. 220 kg/m³), thus a sales price of approx. 60 Euro/to results. The ton of wood pellets is instead sold for approx. 260 Euro, thus an additional profit of approx. 200 Euro/ton could be realized only by changing the density and shape. Machine payback times of less than one year are not uncommon here! This also applies to wood chips or shavings.

Our process allows you to produce first-class wood pellets for your own use or for sale - without much manpower, almost fully automatic. By simply exchanging our dies, you can choose the desired diameter of 6 mm (standard), 8 mm or even 20 mm yourself.

Fields of application of the pellets:

- Energy generation
- Animal bedding 

2 kg of sawdust yields approx. 10 kw/h of energy, which in turn corresponds to approx. 1 liter of heating oil!

during the pelletizing process by our Ecokraft pelletizer model range, almost 80 degrees Celsius are generated during the processing, which brings the biomass into the desired shape and makes it durable for a long time.

3 pieces of sawdust correspond to approx. 1 piece of pellets, which means that the required storage space is reduced by approx. 67%!

All pelleting machine models are characterized by their excellent workmanship (100% Made in Germany) and high production quality in continuous operation. In addition, chem. Binding agents in the production of the pellets can be completely eliminated.

Maple dusts

Maple dust and flakes into wood pellets

People love the maple structure and color, especially for doors and furniture, but valuable energy pellets can still be obtained from the dusts and flakes from the production plants. 2 tons of wood pellets usually replace 1,000 liters of heating oil as a 100% climate-neutral energy source.

Chips, dust, flakes from joinery plant

 

Many wood construction companies invest in fully automated, computer-controlled cutting and joinery plants. Enormous quantities of chips, flakes and dusts are produced during the processing and finishing of building and construction timber.
Until now, these biogenic waste materials have often not been used or only to a very limited extent. In many cases, they were even paid for collection and disposal. But it is precisely this waste wood, usually softwoods with a residual moisture content of 10-15%, that lends itself very well to pelletizing. The material can be screened and reduced to a maximum size of 6 mm by means of a granulator. Subsequently, the material is pelletized to energy pellets with a calorific value of 4.5 kW/kg to 4.9 kW/kg.

Main advantages for conversion to energy pellets
- Prevention of the so-called dust explosion, the dusts are transformed into solid pellets and the danger is averted
- Saving storage space due to extreme volume reduction of approx. 8 : 1
- Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer trucks collect the material and take it to the landfill/incineration site
- Saving heating costs due to self-sufficiency
- Additional income opportunity through the sale of the pellets
- Increasing independence, the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site
- Increasing sustainability through use of company resources and avoidance of waste (wood waste becomes recyclable material again)

Pine dusts

Pine dusts and flakes into wood pellets


Pine dusts and flakes are ideal for use as energy pellets. 2 tons of wood pellets usually replace 1,000 liters of heating oil as a 100% climate-neutral energy source.

Cellulose

Cellulose, is an important raw material for paper production (raw material is lignin and cellulose rich wood) as well as for the chemical and clothing industry (seed hairs of the cotton bush as well as bast fibers from flax etc.).

Cellulose is available in large quantities in nature, so research is currently being conducted to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to produce biofuel from plant biomass (wood and straw).

The excellent building physiology qualities of cellulose also make it a sought-after bulk and insulating material.

Areas of application of the pellets:

  • Combustible
  • Bulk material
  • Insulating material

During the pelletizing process by our Ecokraft pelletizer model range, almost 80 degrees Celsius are generated during processing, which brings the biomass into the desired shape and makes it durable for a long time.

All pelleting machine models are characterized by their excellent workmanship and durable powerful output. In addition, we completely dispense with binders in the production of pellets and thus stand out strongly from the market!

Root wood

Root wood into energy pellets

The root wood is cleaned in the first step and then processed into industrial pellets. The calorific value of root wood is only about 15% below premium spruce pellets.

Oak

Oak (dusts and chips) into energy pellets

Hardwood, generally considered difficult to pelletize because of the low lignin content in the wood. However, very large quantities of dust and chips are produced during the manufacture of solid wood furniture. Until now, these biogenic residual materials have often not been used or only to a very limited extent. In many cases, collection and disposal was even paid for. Whereas oak has a very high energy potential with a calorific value of up to 5.3 kW/kg. Thus, 2kg of oak pellets could replace one liter of fuel oil.

Major advantages for conversion to energy pellets:

  • Preventing the so-called dust explosion, the dusts are transformed into solid pellets and the danger is averted.
  • Saving storage areas, through an extreme volume reduction of approx. 4:1
  • Saving of transport and disposal costs, for disposal by third parties
  • Saving of heating costs, through self-supply
  • Additional income opportunity, through the sale of the pellets
  • Increasing independency, the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site
  • Increase of sustainability, through use of operational resources and avoidance of waste (wood waste becomes recyclable material again)

Disposable pallets

Disposable pallets into energy pellets

Disposable pallets are solid pallets made of A1 wood scrap, which are used for transportation from the manufacturer to the customer and storage of goods. They are essential in the transport and logistics industry, as they are cheap, easy to clean and stable. The only disadvantage is that they can usually be used only once. When goods are delivered on disposable pallets, the pallet remains with the recipients and must be disposed of by them at their expense.

Disposable pallets are cheaper and lighter than Euro pallets and can also be produced in special sizes, which can reduce the transport weight and reduce the loading space requirements. Therefore, it is usually more economical to use one-way pallets than to deliver and pick up the goods on an expensive Euro/multi-way pallet.

However, to avoid the high disposal costs and unnecessary waste of these disposable pallets, pelletizing these pallets into heating pellets is a very good option. In a shredder, the pallets are pre-shredded in the first step and then pass through a double magnetic separator as well as a stone trap to remove nails and stones. The material is then crushed again in a granulator to a maximum size of 6mm. The final step is pelletization to energy pellets with a calorific value of 4.5 - 4.9 kW/kg, which can then be sold profitably.

This not only saves an enormous amount of money, but also contributes to the protection of the environment at the same time.

Main advantages for conversion to energy pellets:

 -Saving storage space, through an extreme volume reduction
 -Saving collection and disposal costs
 -Saving heating costs, by self-supply
 -Additional income possibility, by the sale of the pellets
 -Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site
 -Increasing the sustainability, through the use of operational resources and avoidance of waste

Plastics and recycled material

Cardboard offcuts

Cardboard offcuts into heating pellets

Offcuts resulting from cardboard production as well as waste cardboard are suitable for recycling as well as for the production of energy pellets.

In the first step, the cardboard offcuts or also old cardboard are reduced to approx. 6 mm flakes in a granulator. This is followed by pelletizing to produce energy pellets with a calorific value of 4.4 kW/kg to 4.6 kW/kg. In Germany, such heating pellets may be used in special pellet burners.

Major advantages for conversion to energy pellets:
 -Saving storage space, through extreme volume reduction of approx. 12 : 1.
 -Saving collection and disposal costs, as fewer trucks collect the material and take it to be recycled or disposed of.
 -Saving on heating costs, through self-supply
 -Additional income opportunity, from the sale of the pellets (concrete plants, etc.)
 -Increasing independency, as the production and the supply of heating material can be done on site
 -Increasing the sustainability, through the use of operational resources and avoidance of waste

PVC

PVC fibers and dusts into PVC pellets

During the manufacturing of PVC, large amounts of fibers and dusts can be produced. In the pelletizing process, these materials can be formed back into pellets, thus this material can be used again in the injection molding process.

 

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PU foam

Maximum compression of PU foam

PU foam scrap material usually has to be disposed of by volume. Due to the compaction of approx. 20:1, very high disposal areas and hence costs can be saved.

MDF dust

MDF dust into energy pellets

Medium-density fiberboard, often referred to as MDF for short, usually consists of finely defibered softwoods bonded with resins or glue. Large quantities of MDF dust are produced during the processing of MDF boards in the building insulation and furniture industries. This material can be reused for energy through pelletization.

 

Mineral wool

Mineral wool scraps into insulation pellets

Mineral wool is the overall term for rock and glass wool and is ideal as an insulating material for heat and sound insulation of buildings. Rock wool is made from rock types such as diabase, basalt or dolomite, whereas glass wool consists of 80% waste glass, dolomite, sand or soda.

The mineral insulation is considered mold-resistant and fire-resistant, and scores further plus points thanks to its UV resistance and its wide range of applications. In addition to walls, ceilings and roofs, floors, heating and hot water pipes, district heating lines, boilers and apparatus can also be insulated.

During building construction or energy refurbishment, excess material is cut off when mineral wool insulation boards are inserted and accumulates as waste material. The disposal of these residual materials is associated with high costs and not every landfill for recyclable materials accepts mineral wool.

However, if the mineral wool cuttings are crushed in a cutter mill and then pelletized into insulation granules, they can be returned to the manufacturer for reprocessing and recycling. This is in the spirit of a resource-conserving, sustainable and cost-efficient recycling economy.

 

Main advantages of conversion to insulation granules

  • Savings transportation costs & storage space by extremely reducing the volume by approx. 10:1.
  • Additional revenue opportunity through the sale of the reprocessed rock wool
  • Increasing the sustainability & Saving disposal costs, through preparation and recycling into new mineral wool insulation material and avoidance of waste

 

Wood fiber insulation boards

Wood fiber insulation boards into energy pellets

Wood fiber insulation boards are among the organic and environmentally friendly insulation materials made from plant fibers and are produced from coniferous wood waste.

Sections of these insulation boards, which are left over from processing in construction, are ideally suited for the production of energy pellets. In the first step, the wood fiber insulation boards are chopped up in a chipper and then shredded again in a cutter mill to approx. 10 mm flakes. Subsequently, the pellets are converted into energy pellets with a calorific value of approx. 4.4 - 4.6 kW.

 

We test your material!

Before purchasing a pelleting system, we recommend a trial pelleting in our test center.

During the test pelleting, the pelleting capacity, the throughput of the desired model and the suitable die are determined. In order to be able to carry out a suitable test, it is necessary to provide approx. 100 kg of the desired material. When selecting the material, please ensure that the material to be pelletized has a moisture content of less than 15%.

You would like to have a material test?

We will be happy to advise you!

Call us at +49 9931 89425-65, write us an E-Mail at: office@ecokraft.com or fill out our inquiry form.

 

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